The Park

Inspired by Burj Khalifa's unique triple-lobed shape, The Park's 11 hectares of greenery and water features serve as both entry to Burj Khalifa and outdoor living space. The landscape design includes three distinct areas to serve each of tower's three uses: hotel, residential and office space. These exquisite grounds include a promenade along the Dubai lake, outdoor spaces, outdoor dining, prow lookout, leisure forest grove, playing area, water features and much more.

The three spaces are located at the hotel entry, residential entry and the grand terrace. The tower and pedestrian pathways link the three areas. Spectacular stone paving patterns welcome visitors at each entry. The main entry drive is circled with a palm court, water features, outdoor spaces and a forest grove above. The grand terrace features garden spaces, all-around pedestrian circulation, custom site furnishings, a functional island and a lake edge promenade. The grand water terrace is composed of several levels that step down towards the lake's edge. The water terraces provide further visual interest by reflecting the tower on their surfaces. The landscape design includes six major water features: the main entry fountain, hotel entry fountain, residential entry fountain, the grand water terrace, children's fountain pool and the sculptural fountain.

Green Irrigation

The gardens are partly irrigated with water collected through Burj Khalifa’s Condensate Collection System. Hot and humid Dubai outside air, combined with the tower’s cooling requirements result in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. This water, stored in the basement car park, provides about 15 million gallons of supplemental water per year, the equivalent to nearly 20 Olympic-sized swimming pools.
Leer completo...

Structural Elements — Elevators, Spire, and More

It is an understatement to say that Burj Khalifa represents the state-of-the-art in building design. From initial concept through completion, a combination of several important technological innovations and innovation structural design methods have resulted in a superstructure that is both efficient and robust.
  • Foundation
  • Podium
  • Structural System
  • Exterior Cladding
  • Spire
  • Mechanical Floors
  • Window Washing Bays
  • Broadcast Floors
  • Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing
  • Fire Safety
  • Elevators & Lifts


The superstructure is supported by a large reinforced concrete mat, which is in turn supported by bored reinforced concrete piles. The design was based on extensive geotechnical and seismic studies. The mat is 3.7 meters thick, and was constructed in four separate pours totaling 12,500 cubic meters of concrete. The 1.5 meter diameter x 43 meter long piles represent the largest and longest piles conventionally available in the region. A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations, as well as a cathodic protection system under the mat, to minimize any detrimental effects form corrosive chemicals in local ground water.


The podium provides a base anchoring the tower to the ground, allowing on grade access from three different sides to three different levels of the building. Fully glazed entry pavilions constructed with a suspended cable-net structure provide separate entries for the Corporate Suites at B1 and Concourse Levels, the Burj Khalifa residences at Ground Level and the Armani Hotel at Level 1.

Exterior Cladding

The exterior cladding is comprised of reflective glazing with aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels and stainless steel vertical tubular fins. Close to 26,000 glass panels, each individually hand-cut, were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa. Over 300 cladding specialists from China were brought in for the cladding work on the tower. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer heat, and to further ensure its integrity, a World War II airplane engine was used for dynamic wind and water testing. The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields.
Back to top

Structural System

 In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa.  This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. The structural system can be described as a “buttressed core”, and consists of high performance concrete wall construction. Each of the wings buttress the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. This central core provides the torsional resistance of the structure, similar to a closed pipe or axle. Corridor walls extend from the central core to near the end of each wing, terminating in thickened hammer head walls. These corridor walls and hammerhead walls behave similar to the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments. Perimeter columns and flat plate floor construction complete the system. At mechanical floors, outrigger walls are provided to link the perimeter columns to the interior wall system, allowing the perimeter columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; hence, all of the vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionally. It is also a very efficient structure in that the gravity load resisting system has been utilized so as to maximize its use in resisting lateral loads.
As the building spirals in height, the wings set back to provide many different floor plates. The setbacks are organized with the tower’s grid, such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. As such, the tower does not contain any structural transfers. These setbacks also have the advantage of providing a different width to the tower for each differing floor plate. This stepping and shaping of the tower has the effect of “confusing the wind”: wind vortices never get organized over the height of the building because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape.


The crowning touch of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. In addition to securing Burj Khalifa's place as the world's tallest structure, the spire is integral to the overall design, creating a sense of completion for the landmark. The spire also houses communications equipment.

Mechanical Floors

Seven double-storey height mechanical floors house the equipment that bring Burj Khalifa to life. Distributed around every 30 storeys, the mechanical floors house the electrical sub-stations, water tanks and pumps, air-handling units etc, that are essential for the operation of the tower and the comfort of its occupants.

Window Washing Bays

Access for the tower's exterior for both window washing and façade maintenance is provided by 18 permanently installed track and fixed telescopic, cradle equipped, building maintenance units. The track mounted units are stored in garages, within the structure, and are not visible when not in use. The manned cradles are capable of accessing the entire facade from tower top down to level seven. The building maintenance units jib arms, when fully extended will have a maximum reach of 36 meters with an overall length of approximately 45 meters. When fully retracted, to parked position, the jib arm length will measure approximately 15 meters. Under normal conditions, with all building maintenance units in operation, it will take three to four months to clean the entire exterior facade.

Broadcast and Communications Floors

The top four floors have been reserved for communications and broadcasting. These floors occupy the levels just below the spire.

Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing

To achieve the greatest efficiencies, the mechanical, electrical and plumbing services for Burj Khalifa were developed in coordination during the design phase with cooperation of the architect, structural engineer and other consultant.
  • The tower's water system supplies an average of 946,000 litres (250,000 gallons) of water daily
  • At peak cooling, Burj Khalifa will require about 10,000 tons of cooling, equal to the cooling capacity provided by about 10,000 tons of melting ice
  • Dubai's hot, humid climate combined with the building's cooling requirements creates a significant amount of condensation. This water is collected and drained in a separate piping system to a holding tank in the basement car park
  • The condensate collection system provides about 15 million gallons of supplement water per year, equal to about 20 Olympic-sized swimming pools
  • The tower's peak electrical demand is 36mW, equal to about 360,000 100 Watt bulbs operating simultaneously

Fire Safety

Fire safety and speed of evacuation were prime factors in the design of Burj Khalifa. Concrete surrounds all stairwells and the building service and fireman's elevator will have a capacity of 5,500 kg and will be the world's tallest service elevator. Since people can't reasonably be expected to walk down 160 floors, there are pressurized, air-conditioned refuge areas located approximately every 25 floors.

Elevators & Lifts

Burj Khalifa will be home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators The building service/fireman's elevator will have a capacity of 5,500 kg and will be the world's tallest service elevator.
Burj Khalifa will be the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators will be programmed to permit controlled evacuation for certain fire or security events. Burj Khalifa's Observatory elevators are double deck cabs with a capacity for 12-14 people per cab. Traveling at 10 metres per second, they will have the world's longest travel distance from lowest to highest stop.
Leer completo...

Building a Global Icon

Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa in January 2004 and over the ensuing years to its completion, the building passed many important milestones on its goal to become the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen. In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January, 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world.

Burj Khalifa Construction Timeline

 January 2004

Excavation started

 February 2004

 Piling started

 March 2005

 Superstructure started

 June 2006   

 Level 50 reached

January 2007

 Level 100 reached

March 2007

Level 110 reached

April 2007

Level 120 reached

May 2007

Level 130 reached

July 2007

Level 141 reached - world's tallest building

September 2007

Level 150 reached - world's tallest free-standing structure

April 2008

Level 160 reached - world's tallest man-made structure

January 2009

Completion of spire - Burj Khalifa tops out

September 2009

Exterior cladding competed

January 2010

Official launch ceremony

 Construction Highlights

Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. Burj Khalifa's construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours.
Exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009. The vast project involved more than 380 skilled engineers and on-site technicians. At the initial stage of installation, the team progressed at the rate of about 20 to 30 panels per day and eventually achieved as many as 175 panels per day.
The tower accomplished a world record for the highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade, at a height of 512 metres. The total weight of aluminium used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircraft and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of Eiffel Tower in Paris.
In November, 2007, the highest reinforced concrete corewalls were pumped using 80 MPa concrete from ground level; a vertical height of 601 metres. Smashing the previous pumping record on a building of 470m on the Taipei 101; the world’s second tallest tower and the previous world record for vertical pumping of 532 metres for an extension to the Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant in 1994. The concrete pressure during pumping to this level was nearly 200 bars.
The amount of rebar used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons - laid end to end this would extend over a quarter of the way around the world.
Leer completo...

Inspired Design

Inspired Design

While it is superlative in every respect, it is the unique design of Burj Khalifa that truly sets it apart. The centrepiece of this new world capital attracted the world's most esteemed designers to an invited design competition.
Ultimately, the honour of designing the world's tallest tower was awarded the global leader in creating ultra-tall structures, the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) with Adrian Smith FAIA, RIBA, consulting design Partner. The selected design was subject to an extensive peer review program to confirm the safety and effectiveness of the structural systems.

Wind Testing
Floor Plan


The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross section of the tower incrementally as it spirals skyward.
The central core emerges at the top and culminates in a sculpted spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Arabian Gulf. Viewed from the base or the air, Burj Khalifa is evocative of the onion domes prevalent in Islamic architecture.
Back to Top

Wind Tunnel Testing

Over 40 wind tunnel tests were conducted on Burj Khalifa to examine the effects the wind would have on the tower and its occupants. These ranged from initial tests to verify the wind climate of Dubai, to large structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, to micro-climate analysis of the effects at terraces and around the tower base. Even the temporary conditions during the construction stage were tested with the tower cranes on the tower to ensure safety at all times.
Stack effect or chimney effect is a phenomenon that effects super-tall building design, and arises from the changes in pressure and temperature with height. Special studies were carried on Burj Khalifa to determine the magnitude of the changes that would have to be dealt with in the building design.
Back to Top

Floor Plan

Concourse level to level 8 and level 38 and 39 will feature the Armani Hotel Dubai. Levels 9 to 16 will exclusively house luxurious one and two bedroom Armani Residences.
Floors 45 through 108 are private ultra-luxury residences. The Corporate Suites occupy fill most of the remaining floors, except for level 122 which houses a restaurant and level 124, the tower's public observatory.
For the convenience of home owners, the tower has been divided in to sections with exclusive Sky Lobbies on Levels 43, 76 and 123 that feature state-of-the-art fitness facilities including a Jacuzzis on Level 43 and 76. The Sky Lobbies on 43 and 76 additionally house swimming pools and a recreational room each that can be utilized for gatherings and lifestyle events. Offering an unparalleled experience, both pools open to the outside offering residents the option of swimming from inside to the outside balcony.
Other facilities for residents include a Residents' Library, and Burj Khalifa Gourmet Market, a gourmet convenience store and meeting place for the residents. Valet parking will be provided for guests and visitors.
Back to Top


The interior design of Burj Khalifa public areas was also done by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP and was led by award-winning designer Nada Andric. It features glass, stainless steel and polished dark stones, together with silver travertine flooring, Venetian stucco walls, handmade rugs and stone flooring. The interior were inspired by local cultural while staying mindful of the building's status as a global icon and residence.
Back to Top


Over 1,000 pieces of art from prominent Middle Eastern and international artists will adorn Burj Khalifa and the surrounding Emaar Boulevard. Many of the pieces were specially commissioned by Emaar to be a tribute to the spirit of global harmony. The pieces were selected as a means of linking cultures and communities, symbolic of Burj Khalifa being an international collaboration.
Back to Top
Leer completo...

Burj Khalifa — The World's Tallest Tower

Burj Khalifa's Grand Vision

World's tallest building. A living wonder. Stunning work of art. Incomparable feat of engineering. Burj Khalifa is all that. In concept and execution, Burj Khalifa has no peer.
More than just the world's tallest building, Burj Khalifa is an unprecedented example of international cooperation, symbolic beacon of progress, and an emblem of the new, dynamic and prosperous Middle East.
It is also tangible proof of Dubai's growing role in a changing world. In fewer than 30 years, this city has transformed itself from a regional centre to a global one. This success was not based on oil reserves, but on reserves of human talent, ingenuity and initiative. Burj Khalifa embodies that vision.
Mr Mohamed Alabbar, Chairman, Emaar Properties, said: "Burj Khalifa goes beyond its imposing physical specifications. In Burj Khalifa, we see the triumph of Dubai's vision of attaining the seemingly impossible and setting new benchmarks. It is a source of inspiration for every one of us in Emaar. The project is a declaration of the emirate's capabilities and of the resolve of its leaders and people to work hand in hand on truly awe-inspiring projects. 
Emaar had but one inspiration, the unflagging enthusiasm set in motion by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, who inspires us to reach for the stars.
Leer completo...

Official sets start date for 555m building


CONSTRUCTION will begin on a 555-metre tall building next year on Diamond Island, the tallest building in Southeast Asia, Phnom Penh Governor Kep Chuktema claimed yesterday.

However, experts have cast doubt on the project’s viability, while officials with the firm set to construct the tower said yesterday there was no concrete plans yet about when to proceed.

Speaking during the inauguration of a third bridge to Diamond Island, Kep Chuktema said the building was planned to be the world’s second tallest.

“Cambodia will be building the world’s second-tallest building at 555 metres in Southeast Asia in early 2012. If we can’t build 555 metres, we will build only 456 metres,” he said.

Diamond Island’s development is overseen by Overseas Cambodia Investment Corporation, but the firm’s project manager Touch Samnang said yesterday the company had no updated plans regarding the tower’s construction.

“We have no new updates for this project – everything’s remained the same as before,” he said.

The firm has designed the project as its first step, and is currently studying the land in more detail as the second step. Construction can commence once that step is complete, he claimed.

The project was first announced in September 2010, though some experts questioned its viability at the time. The current tallest building in the world is the 828 metre Burj Khalifa in Dubai.

Phnom penh post
Leer completo...

New forest dam planned



A 9,100-hectare land concession,  earmarked for a hydropower project, has been granted to a Chinese company in protected Koh Kong province forest. The firm has already been given land that appears to far exceed Cambodia’s legal limit. 

Union Development Group is now developing a 36,000-hectare land concession for a tourism project in Botum Sakor and Kiri Sakor districts, and has now been given the green light to construct a 
hydropower dam. 

A 2008 sub-decree awarded the company the 36,000 hectares to develop a US$5 billion tourism zone. The zone is set to displace 1,149 families and seems to violate a 10,000-hectare limit on land concessions set out in article 59 of the land law.

A new sub-decree, obtained  by the Post yeterday and signed by Prime Minister Hun Sen, was issued on August 12. It reclassifies the protected forest area from state to public land, paving the way for Union Development Group to build a hydrodam of unspecified capacity and electrical output.

Nhol Thon, director of Botum Sakor protected national park, said yesterday the company’s tourism project had led to the conservation and regeneration of forest, not its degradation. 

“The government has the right to take some of the national park if needed, it is not wrong,” he said.

Thuk Kroeun Vutha, secretary of state at the Ministry of Environment, said yesterday that “before the government gave rights to the company to develop, it allowed expert officers to come down to the field and conduct clear research already”.

But some fear the company’s real intention is to log forest. Chut Wutty, director of the Natural Resource Protection Group, estimated yesterday some 50 to 60 percent of forest in the company’s tourism concession had now been cleared. “You can see in that area it’s mostly mountain and rock. They don’t have good soil on it. And if they say  they are developing all these things it’s a trick,” he said.

Some villagers, he said, had accepted relocation offers while others had refused to leave and continued to negotiate for a better deal. A representative of Union Development Group declined to comment. 


Leer completo...

Union rips into ILO garment report


Photo by: Will Baxter
Garment workers take a break outside a factory on Sisowath Quay before returning to work for an overtime shift in Phnom Penh’s Russey Keo district last September.

Cambodia's garment factories remain, for the most part, in compliance with national laws and international labour standards, the latest monitoring report from the International Labour Organisation, which was released yesterday, concludes.

This finding was quickly dismissed as out of touch with reality by the president of one of the largest unions representing garment workers, a reaction that was in turn dismissed as predictable by the secretary-general of the Garment Manufacturers’ Association in Cambodia. 

“That’s what unions do, they complain,” GMAC’s Ken Loo said. 

“Compliance levels generally remain high, although some areas of concern remain,” the ILO said in a statement accompanying its 26th report on working conditions in the Kingdom’s garment sector. It has been monitoring factories here as part of its Better Factories Cambodia programme since 2001.

ILO monitors who inspected 186 of the 276 factories with export licences found no evidence of forced labour or proof that the factories were employing children, the report said. 

Almost all factories, 97 percent, paid the legal minimum wage of US$61 a month for regular workers, but only 79 percent paid casual workers, or those on probation, the minimum wage of $56 per month, it said.

“How can we live on $61 a month?” the president of the Coalition of Cambodian Apparel Workers’ Democratic Union asked. “Workers are cutting back on food and working two to four hours of overtime each day to get by,” Ath Thorn explained. 

He also said that many of the factories the ILO was monitoring were subcontracting orders to factories outside its Better Factories programme and that these factories were violating workers rights on a daily basis.

Ken Loo said that the average monthly wage of a garment worker was about $95, which included overtime of about 12 hours a week. “We never called $61 a living wage, it’s a minimum wage,” he said. 

Factories are operating on thin profit margins, he said, but added that it was possible that both workers and factory owners might be “right”.

The ILO report is based on investigations conducted between November 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011. The data it uses to detect incidence of sexual harassment is from a survey conducted in 2006.  A communications officer admitted that this data was old but said it was still relevant.

The garment factories in the ILO’s programme employed almost 325,000 workers in the first half of this year. Garment exports in the period rose 32 percent over the same period last year, according to the Ministry of Commerce.
Phnom Penh Post

Leer completo...

Friendly bridge, swift evictions


Photo by: Heng Chivoan
Construction of a new bridge over the Tonle Sap river carries on yesterday, while in the background, homes slated for demolition before the coming weekend are seen on the riverbank.

About 160 families living in Srah Chak commune in the capital’s Daun Penh district have two days until their homes are set to be dismantled to make way for a new Cambodian-Chinese Friendship bridge, residents said yesterday.

In an August 5 eviction notice, Daun Penh district governor Sok Sambath said that he would take measures against  “slums” near the construction site to facilitate the project and would not be responsible for compensation if villagers did not leave within 15 days.

Ban Samoul, 71, a resident of village 16 on the west bank of the river, said authorities were forcing 161 families in the commune to pull down their houses. “The authorities did not talk about a solution, but just commanded us to move from this site in 15 days,” he said, adding that the families had decided to stay until they received appropriate compensation.

“We do not reject the new bridge. We just want the government to give us enough money or shelter,” he said.

Photo by: Heng Chivoan
Chear Rotana (left), 12, and Dim Sokoung, 11, fish yesterday near homes that are to be demolished to make way for the development of a new bridge over the Tonle Sap river.
Sok Sambath could not be reached for comment yesterday.

Meanwhile, residents in Russei Keo district’s Chroy Changvar commune on the east bank of the river expressed uncertainty about whether they would receive compensation.

Chan Sophak, 29, of the commune’s Deum Kor village, said officials had questioned some villagers about the size of their land and had assured them that the information would be used to evaluate compensation, but they had yet to hear the results. 

Chroy Changvar commune chief Pich Sareoun said yesterday that 78 families were affected by the bridge project and nine had received US$5,000 each in compensation.
Leer completo...

Welcome to Five Five Five Meters Building

welcome for all
Leer completo...